What's a shock absorber?

Cars incorporate springs that compress to absorb the shocks encountered when traversing the typical bumps and ruts in the road surface.
Springs seek to return to their initial length.
In cars, the upper end of the spring is connected to the body, while the lower end supports a heavy suspension, including the tire and brake unit. This means the spring overshoots past its initial length before being compressed once again. This cycle is repeated over and over.
It's like releasing an object hung from a spring scale, which lengthens and contracts repeatedly.
The role of a shock absorber is to smooth this bouncing as fast as possible, thereby stabilizing the body.

Benefits of having shock absorbers

Reduces unwanted spring action for a smooth ride.

Extended spring action keeps the body from bounding up and down, which degrades ride feel, compromises tire road holding performance, and impairs the stability of the car. In this situation, shock absorbers help stabilize the body and restore ride comfort.

Improved braking performance

The car dips less at the front during braking, resulting in more positive contact between the tires and road surface. This improves braking forces and shortens braking distance.

Smooth cornering

Since the shock absorber restricts the spring's extension/compression motion, the speed at which the car rolls (or tilts outwards during cornering) is also restricted. This limits rapid load shifts and the resulting swerving and fluctuations in tire road holding performance, making it easier for the driver to keep to the intended path.